FAQ

I'm an EE with almost 30 years' experience and I just looked up the same thing a couple years ago because zig-zags are used extensively in wind farms (for now anyway, not really required anymore). I used them over the years but just assumed they worked. Take the standard WYE phasor diagram with a-phase at zero degrees and divide each phasor in two. The part attached to the origin is the positive sequence.

The second part of the phasor has the polarity reversed and is the negative s ...

Power Transmission lines are usually very long, EHV Transmission lines used for wheeling of power. They are strung on very high lattice Towers. The transmission lines are of ACSR or AAAC conductors of appropriate current carrying capacities. In case of wheeling of large currents at say 400kV level, bundle conductors are used. They don't need any kind of insulation or jackets etc. as the ambient air serves as Air insulation. Thus maintaining requisite flash over distance vis'a vis, EHV voltage ...

Why do we need to Split the Stator of Single Phase A-synchronous (Induction Motor) unlike the 3 Phase Induction Motor?

A 3 phase induction motor has 3 different currents flowing through it... these 3 cause 3 different magnetic fields that are oscillating at 120 degrees (ideally) apart, the interaction of these 3 magnetic fields in the air gap causes a rotating magnetic field, this magnetic field rotates at a speed we call synchronous speed, which is also the maximum speed the motor ca ...

Q: I know what is forward synchronization and reverse synchronization. But in the article I read its mentioned that reverse synchronization is dangerous.

1) Why is reverse synchronization dangerous?
2) What are the differences in parameters in auto synchronization for both types of synchronization?
3) If there is no auto sync relay, is there any difference when synchronized manually?

A: In the old days when you had mechanical governors with a lot of droop (the ...

Over sizing generators is guzzling energy (higher fuel), money (higher cost) and larger space (high footprint). By applying Harmonic Filter, that depending upon load types, say metal, rolling mills, or much easier loads like buildings, textile plants etc., one can load the Generator and Engine by nearly to 100% of its capacity sustainably. In the past few decades, we have done over several hundreds, if not thousands, of jobs applying Harmonic Filter with generators, both LT (415/ 433/ 440V) a ...

Aircraft electrical components operate on many different voltages both AC and DC. However, most of the aircraft systems use 115 volts AC at 400 hertz or 28 volts DC. 26 volts AC is also used in some aircraft for lighting purposes, where the power is generated by a commutator which regulates the output voltage of 28 volts DC.Aircraft AC power, normally at a phase voltage of 115V, is generated by an alternator, g ...

Someone told me the appliances for United States 240v, are combined with TWO 120v hot wires, a neutral, and a ground wire, like refrigerator? If yes, can it be power by one 240v hot wire (single phase), and neutral, ground wire?

There are very few appliances in the US that are 240v, most are 120V, with only the high current ones such as a dryer, stove/range, and some air conditioners. However it is unwise to assume that all 240v appliances only utilize 240v, many older units utiliz ...

A fault on an electrical system will continue until either a protective device operates to isolate the fault, the fault burns itself clear or the power source fails due to the load imposed by the fault, which can occur when the fault is supplied by local generators.

If the circuit has a properly adjusted protective relay and circuit breaker operating are: the relay processing time + breaker opening time + arc extinction. In the case of an unprotected circuit time will be the protec ...

As with all such questions, it depends (on the purpose of the studies, and the type of wind generator). What is modeled should be what is there. Induction generator turbines should use an induction motor model with negative real power (so that their fault current contribution, and reactive demand increase when (re) accelerating are captured). 100% inverted turbines are usually represented as a static P (possibly Q) load. Double fed turbines...may require careful thought. Obviously, dispatch/s ...

Question: I have a 1.5 kW three phase motor running on a GoHz VFD. The VFD is connected to two phase / 220V supply, the motor is connected in Delta connection. RPM of the motor is 2800 / 3360 at 50 / 60 Hz. It is now running on 50 Hz. I need a RPM of 1400 to 1500 which means I will need to run the motor on 25 Hz which is not a problem with the GoHz VFD. But how much does it affect the motor torque? ...

The grounding technique depends primarily on how the system is earthed, and configuration as well as the voltage. This varies between country, and local practices, but sees below for a general idea.

MV systems like 3.3, 6.6, 11, and 33kV are generally impedance earthed so the earth fault current is limited, which means that the grounding design is relatively straightforward unless it's a small rural substation fed via overhead lines.

HV systems like 66, 132,230, 380kV te ...

Yes you can do it but need to exercise some precaution: The LV winding that was intended by design to be the secondary winding, will serves as the primary & the value of the magnetizing inrush current actually will be greater than expected. When a transformer is reverse fed, the taps move to the output side and so their operation is reversed. Taps will control the output voltage so chances of over excitation will be there. This is not serious concern till the input voltage variation is wi ...

In a position feedback PID controller the integrator component is the sum of all the position error. You could call it the hysteresis, or history of error. Regardless, it is like a running average error and tells your control system how consistently off the mark it is in general. Typically the integrator gain is small to keep a stable system, so that you don't have a strong P or D response to the I induced response itself (the gains reacting to each other's reactions is a source of instabilit ...

In substation there is Line Matching Unit (LMU) where the equipment impedance and line impedance matching is done, it is connected below coupling capacitor CC, and we have studied in network theory maximum power transfer thermo where impedance matching term is used. It is used for maximum communication signal can pass to other end with reduced loss.

This is the first part of the theory which is maximum power transfer. This is basically figuring out what should be the line impedance ...

The 3rd harmonic currents are not in phase with each other, they are just at 150 Hz but still 120 degrees apart relative to their period now being 6.67 ms instead of 20 ms - i.e. the zero crossings on each phase now occur every 3.33 ms instead of every 10 ms and are spread apart as a normal 3-phase set of waveforms.

But that does not mean that the A phase @ 150 Hz is in phase with the B phase and in phase with the C phase.

Remember what a delta is doing - we generally re ...

First of all, a DOL controlled motor may run in Fwd only, or in Fwd and Rev, depending upon the load and process (quad 1 or quad1 & quad 3 operation) - you simply switch it on/off via a contactor and it accelerates/decelerates between 0 and full speed, through its designed torque/slip curve. There will be no generation in these quads, the contactor is open, therefore the electrical supply to the motor windings is OFF and the motor will simply slow and stop in a load defined time (instanta ...

BLDC motors are usually in small capacity ratings, and it is universally adopted principle across word to use star connection (either internal or external) in small HP motors. Anyway, Star or delta connection matters only in case of motor with 6 leads and operating with star-delta starter, which is never a case with BLDC motor.

Star/Delta connection matters only when there are six leads and starter ...

Energy Management is a major part of Industry and understanding how much money it costs to operate electric motors in industry is a large part of that management. Electric Motors take up the major percentage of energy used in industry and even a small percentage drop can mean major savings.

When we go out and purchase a car, the first question most people ask is: "what is the fuel consumption"? In actual fact the cost of the fuel over a 7 year period is very low in comparison to th ...

First make sure the cause of the noise is not mechanical in nature (bearings, misalignment, worn bearings, lose hardware, lubrication, etc., etc.). If the cause is identified as being electrical in nature you can check some of these.

Is the motor rated for VFD service? Although you may be able to use a regular 3 phase AC motor with some VFD's, a regular 3 phase motor is not design to work with VFD's and thus will operate with higher electrical losses than a motor which is rated for ...

All variable frequency drives using power electronics are essentially "frequency choppers". Either the VFD is a current-sourced inverter topology, or a voltage-sourced inverter topology. To obtain the desired output (usually defined as voltage at some specific frequency), the incoming signal gets "chopped" and rectified to produce a DC pulse, which is then inverted back produce a "sample" of a fraction of a sinusoidal waveform.

The sample can v ...